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Attention Deficiency / Hyperactive Disorder.

There is nothing called "good kid" or "bad kid". How the kid will behave depends on 2 things. Parenting & kid's health. There may be lot of inborn disorders which kids can't identify. Very often parents also generalize a kid's behavior with common labelling as long as there is no identifiable deficiencies. Ironically nothing can be predicted accurately before the kid attains age of 3 years.

Many childhood disorders are categorized as Externalizing & Internalizing Disorder. Externalizing kids seem to be uncontrollable. They get into fights, have temper tantrums & disobedient & can be destructive. Internalizing kids seem overcontrolled. They worry a lot, anxious, depressed, seem shy & at least somewhat withdrawn.

Externalizing kids are of special concern for parents, teachers & clinicians. They don't pay attention, seem exceptionally active, behave aggressively, break rules & cause significant harm to others. Unfortunately, discriminating among these conditions can be difficult & it's hard to land on inference for a particular set of symptoms.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is defined by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity & impulsivity. ADHD frequently occurs with other syndromes as shown in the pic. As per DSM-IV-TR, ADHD has 3 subtypes attention problems, over activity & combination of both. Kids in attention deficit group have problems in focusing, more socially withdrawn & may have anxiety or depression. Impulsive kids are more aggressive, seem to have difficulties with authority figures & more likely to be rejected by their peers. DSM-IV-TR requires the kid to be impaired in more than one setting to receive diagnosis.

It's more often diagnosed during early school days for 2 reasons. First, it's usually hard to establish a positive diagnosis of ADHD before the kid is 4/5 yrs old. Second, school situation makes demands on kids that may not have been present in their earlier environments. For example, kids in school are frequently expected to sit quietly, complete tasks & pay attention to classes. While the occurrence of ADHD generally diminishes with advancing age, untreated symptoms are risk factors for later developmental issues.

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